crop yield index percentage formula

The crop biological yield refers to the total dry matter accumulation of a plant system. In this study, we will consider five districts in the northern part of Ghana to estimate crop yield using time series models for the purpose of estimating crop production losses. Am accessible overview of the history of corn can be found here. If distributed equally, cereal production per person has increased despite a growing population. 3.3. in maximising yield of pulse crops. Available online. 4 Washington, DC: World Bank. The yield of a crop can be basically depends upon many factors that may be endogenous factors or exogenous factors. If we compare this increase to that of total population (which increased only 136 percent over the same period), we see that global cereal production has increased at a much faster rate than that of population. Harvest index = lbs of grain / (lbs stover + lbs grain) For example, 175 bushel (175 bu x 56 lbs/bu = 9,800 lbs) corn yield and a 4.5 ton (4.5 ton x 2,000 lbs/ton = 9,000 lbs) stover yield would result in a harvest index of: In 2014, we used 16% more land for cereal production than we did in 1961 (approximately equivalent to double the area of Germany). It is surprising the difference a slight variation in seed size or germination makes to the seeding rate required to … OUP is the world's largest university press with the widest global presence. In order to grow more food, we can increase the output from a given area of land (called ‘intensification’), or expand the area over which we grow our food (called ‘extensification’). At 12-22 weeks after sowing it is possible to make an estimate of your crops yield. All visualizations, data, and code produced by Our World in Data are completely open access under the Creative Commons BY license. A bit of both. © 1943 Wiley 7.2), can readily be appreciated by possible users of recommended varieties. Knowing how much space each plant requires and when it will reach harvest will help you determine how much space to set aside for each crop and when. Overall, crop yield variability can be explained by the drought index (i.e. Select the purchase In the chart we see the indexed change in land area used for cereal production from 1961-2014 (on the y-axis), measured against the indexed change in cereal yield over the same period (on the x-axis). 1. Percentage yield = $\frac{0.6}{1.4}$$\times$ 100%. Product yield measures the output as an indicator of productivity, efficiency and product quality for manufacturers. Standardization of crop yield estimation methods at various levels of farming helps to obtain accurate agricultural statistics as well as assessing the suitability of agricultural practices under various production conditions. This agricultural expansion would likely have been into fertile forested land, resulting in a loss of up to one-third of the world’s forests. specified crop growth period. Differences in genotype merit, expressed in percentage values (Fig. It has become familiar to millions through a diverse publishing program that includes scholarly works in all academic disciplines, bibles, music, school and college textbooks, business books, dictionaries and reference books, and academic journals. Predicting how much each person in your household consumes will also help you determine how much to plant. The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013). Although there are a few exceptions–notably across Sub-Saharan Africa, the continued increase in cereal yields across the world has been the major driver of total cereal production. Crop growth rate is a measure of the increase in size, mass or number of crops over a period of time. Productivity gains between the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, growing 2-3 fold over this period. The foregoing explanation presents the usual crop-yield index as a ratio of acreage aggregates, but it may also be looked upon as a Percentage yield = 42.9%. Weather data for modelling crop yield 19 3.3.3. The economic yield is a fraction of dry matter produced; the harvest index forms a useful measure of crop yield potential. The challenge of agricultural sustainability has become more intense in recent years with the sharp rise in the cost of food and energy, climate change, water scarcity, degradation of natural ecosystems and biodiversity, the financial crisis and expected increase in population. • Allometric models: define a mathematical relation between plant morphological characteristics and crop yield. Crop yield can also refer to … For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions There is therefore an important relationship between yields improvements and land use. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. The UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) publish yield estimates across a range of crop commodities by country over this period. Overall, this means we use less land per person than we did fifty years ago. Percentage yield= (Actual yield/theoretical yield )x100. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. • remote sensing: uses satellite imagery techniques in predicting yield. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. Improved harvest index of the represents increased physiological capacity to mobilize photosynthates and translocate them into organs having economic yield. This visualization shows the index of the arable land area needed to produce an equivalent aggregate of crop production, relative to the land area needed in 1961 i.e. Usually, percent yield is lower than 100% because the actual yield is often less than the theoretical value. Most of our improvements in cereal production have arisen from improvements in yield. The FAO explains the construction of the PIN in detail here. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. This is in strong contrast to Sub-Saharan Africa where the area of land used for cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 and yields have only increased by 80 percent. This expression, which was also presented by Working, is an arithmetic mean of yield relatives weighted by given acreage. Dr. Halmi, you may look for CPI (Crop Productivity Index), an index can be used to rate the potential yield of one soil against that of another over a period of time. Journal of Farm Economics Our data on agricultural yields across crop types and by country are much more extensive from 1960 onwards. If the actual and theoretical yield are the same, the percent yield is 100%. The initial period of yield gains in the late 1930s-early 1940s coincides with the transition period of farmers from open-pollinated varieties to hybrids. WeedSOFT 8X is a web-based competition model that can be used to estimate early-season yield … ’ on the chart.The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). Solution: Substitute the values in the corresponding formula. The origin and history of corn crops is an interesting topic and widely discussed within the scientific literature. Data on yields of permanent crops are not as reliable as those for temporary crops either because most of the area information may correspond to planted area, as for grapes, or because of the scarcity and unreliability of the area figures reported by the countries, as for example for cocoa and coffee.'5. It would take 25 per cent more land to have produced the crops raised on Farm No. In this visualisation, you can select/deselect which crops you wish to see and compare, and you can also view these trends across any country or region using the “change country” wheel. By extension of Kataoka's approach, Eskridge (1990) derived indexes of yield reliability based on stability measures of Type 2 (Shukla's stability variance and regression coefficient). This is taken from World Bank (2008) – World Development Report (2008): Agriculture for Development. Grain yield is dependent, therefore, upon several aspects of the develop­ mental morphology of the plant. This item is part of JSTOR collection The crop production index (PIN) is the sum of crop commodities produced (after deductions of quantities used as seed and feed). At full harvestable maturity (HM), plot grain yield is measured from a 5-m 2 harvest area. Have we achieved this through land expansion or improved yields? From 1961 to 2014, global cereal production has increased by 280 percent. In these trends we see large regional differences in this yield-land use trade-off. There are a number of factors which are likely to have contributed to sustained yield gains: fertilizer application, irrigation, increased soil tillage, and improved farming practices. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. Increasing yields reduces the pressure of expanding agricultural land. Ratings range 0 to 100. Share of global habitable land needed for agriculture if everyone had the diet of... Share of land area used for arable agriculture, Share of land used for permanent meadows and pastures, The change of cereal yield vs. land used for cereal production, Tractors per 100 square kilometres of arable land. Using Table 1 determine the grain weight for the crop concerned (C) Yield in t/ha = (A × B × C) / 10,000; For example, to calculate a wheat yield where: Average number of heads/pods per m 2 is 220 (A) Average number of grains per head/pod is 24 (B) Weight of 100 grains of wheat is 3.4g (per Table 1) (C) Yield in t/ha = (220 × 24 × 3.4) / 10,000 = 1.79 It currently publishes more than 6,000 new publications a year, has offices in around fifty countries, and employs more than 5,500 people worldwide. 1 at average yields. There are likely to be certain regional and seasonal differences in yield within a given country, however, reported average yields still provide a useful indication of changes in productivity over time and geographical region. Percentage yield = $\frac{Actual\; yield}{Theoretical\; yield}$$\times$ 100%. Crops in this area are almost 100 percent rain fed (Stutley, 2008). We see UK yields in sugar beet and potatoes tend to have much higher yields than cereal crops by mass (although they are likely to have a much higher percentage of water weight). For example, globally in 2014, the index value was 0.3; this means only 30% of the arable land area was needed to produce the same quantity of crops relative to 1961. defined as the relative area required by sole crops to produce the same yield as intercrops (Mead and Willey, 1980). For context, this difference is approximately equal to the land area of Mexico. Modelled yield 18 3.3.1. 2010 Engler and del Pozo (2013) – Assessing long- and short-term trends in cereal yields: the case of Chile between 1929 and 2009. Procedure. How have crop yields changed over the long-term? This is an important contrast to Africa where results are more mixed. Population and Development Review, Volume 38, Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013. Specifically, year-to-year variation of soybean shows the highest correlation with the drought index, followed by … Crop load adjustment: Practices that either enhance the yield per vine (such as increased water or nitrogen application from bloom to véraison) or decrease the yield per vine (such as reduction in water after fruit set, or actively removing fruit prior to harvest). ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. All of our charts can be embedded in any site. This entry can be cited as: Our World in Data is free and accessible for everyone. Vol.40 no.1 Santiago Apr. Recently, agricultural technologies which increase food production sustainably at the same t… This ‘spared’ land amounts to 1.26 billion hectares in 2014– roughly equal to the area of Mexico and Europe combined. This process of cross-breeding between open-pollinated varieties, combined with improved breed selection practices is thought to define the key turning point in US corn yields.1, In the chart we see the average yields in key cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats) in Chile from 1929-2014. SPI) for the study period. C. Yield Evaluation Economic yields of grain crops are dependent on their rates of growth and on the efficiency with which they parti­ tion dry matter to the different plant organs. Potato yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014. Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. Request Permissions. Relative growth rate is the slope of a … A chemist making geranyl formate uses 375 g of starting material and collects 417g of purified product. However, if global average cereal yields were to have remained at their 1961 levels, we see the amount of additional land (in blue) which we would have had to convert to arable land if we were to achieve the same levels of cereal production. While the lost yield is unfortunate, it can provide a teachable moment regarding crop-yield interference. Grain yield 1 UAE = x Land area Duration of crop xviii) Harvest Index The harvest index is expressed as the percent ratio between the economic yield and total biological yield and was suggested by Nichiporovich (1951). Some countries, including Ethiopia, Nigeria and Algeria have followed the rest of the world in yield increases. Add country Please consult our full legal disclaimer. The maximum calculated yield is 1.4 g. What is the percentage yield of this reaction? It is weighted by the commodity prices. The FAO report yield values as the national average for any given year; this is calculated by diving total crop output (in kilograms or tonnes) by the area of land used to grow a given crop (in hectares). Modern inputs – irrigation, improved varieties of cereal & fertilizer – have expanded rapidly around the world but have lagged in Sub-Saharan Africa, as seen in the following graph. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. License: All of Our World in Data is completely open access and all work is licensed under the Creative Commons BY license. Estimating crop yield. Economic yield HI = x 100 Total biological yield JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. We will always indicate the original source of the data in our documentation, so you should always check the license of any such third-party data before use and redistribution. However, a key driver in the initial rise in yield is considered to be the adoption of improved corn varieties from plant breeding developments. The absolute growth rate is the slope of the curve. Modelling yield within the context of a cropping system 22 4. A simple method to estimate harvest index in grain crops Armen R. Kemaniana,*, Claudio O. Sto¨ckleb,1, David R. Hugginsc,2, Luis M. Viegad,3 a Blackland Research and Extension Center, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Temple, TX 76502, USA b Biological Systems Engineering Department, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6120, USA c USDA-ARS, Washington State … In the chart we see the change in average yield for key crop commodities since 1961. Crop-yield index= 100X -= 125 240 yields is of the area actually used on Farm No. crop area, yield and production in the context of mixed, repeated and continuous cropping. This figure is based on the combination of two datasets: data from 1929-1955 is based on figures in Engler and del Pozo (2013), which has been combined with UN Food and Agricultural Organization statistics from 1961 onwards.2. Harvest index is defined as the pounds of grain divided by the total pounds of above ground biomass (stover plus grain). The noticeable shrinkage in the extent of cropland as a function of the Crop Production index since 1990 provides encouragement that farmers will continue sparing land.’. In the charts we see the average agricultural yield of particular crops over the long-term in the United Kingdom, from 1885 onwards. Example 1. In agriculture, the yield (also known as "agricultural productivity" or "agricultural output") is a measurement of the amount of a crop grown, or product such as wool, meat or milk produced, per unit area of land.The seed ratio is another way of calculating agricultural productivity.. Expansion of cereal production has followed very different paths in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433). In the first chart, we have plotted cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats). 70% less land was needed. Online here.The original sources given by my source are Evenson and Gollin 2003 and FAO 2006a. Rearrange the above formula to obtain theoretical yield formula . Moreover, since wheat is 27.215 kg/bu, the yield we estimated would be 40 bu/acre (1097/27.215) or 40 bushels per acre. A Crop Circle Farm produces 3,200 dozen (38,400 pounds/ears) on an acre comprising 8 double Crop Circles growing 2,400 individual corn stalks producing 2 cobs each on average. Similarly to cereal yields, productivity gains in sugar beet and potatoes have been most impressive over the latter half of the 20th century. 1 mole of salicylic acid gives 1 mole of aspirin. A crop yield will be higher when its harvest index will be higher. What caused this significant drive in yield improvements? Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. However, a failure to increase agricultural productivity in many Sub-Saharan countries has led to large increases in land used for cereal production. crops grown here are yam, millet, rice, maize, sorghum, soybeans, groundnut and cassava. For many, changes in the arable land have been minimal (or have declined). An average yield of 1,200 dozen (14,400 pounds/ears) can be expected from a cultivated row farm acre. grain yield, plant height, maturity, and genetic pedigree. DOI: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00561.x. In the period since 1940, yields have increased more than five-fold. option. Jesse H. Ausubel, Iddo K. Wernick, Paul E. Waggoner (2013) – Peak Farmland and the Prospect for Land Sparing. All Rights Reserved. Overall, we see that improvements in cereal yields from the 19th century into the first half of the 20th century were relatively slow– by the 1940s, yields were typically in the range of 2-2.5 tonnes per hectare. 2013. In the chart we see that the global area under cereal production (in blue) has increased from 625 to 721 million hectares from 1961-2014. With increasing demands for food and agricultural products, intensification of smallholder production system becomes increasingly necessary. values in 1961 are equal to 1.0. This has inevitably allowed us to ‘spare’ land we would have otherwise had to convert for cereal production. Approaches to benchmark yield and quantify yield gaps 23 4.1. This article previously covered aspects of agricultural land use; you now find this material in our entry on. 1961 = 100). Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. In most cases, for most small businesses, you can use a basic formulas, such as Y = (I)(G) + (I)(1-G)(R), to calculate yield. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce these in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. Harvest index is the major factor which affects the crop production. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. As we see, average corn yields in the United States remained relatively flat throughout the 1800s until the 1930s. These factors are not same for all crops but variation exists. Most European, American (both North and Latin American), Asian and Pacific countries have seen a much larger increase in cereal yields relative to area used for production. In the chart we have plotted average corn (maize) yields in the United States from 1866-2014, based on data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and UN FAO. Approach 1: high-yielding fields, experimental stations and 23 growers contests 4.1.1. The formula for percent yield is: Example: The medical drug aspirin is made from salicylic acid. When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. for monitoring crop condition and forecasting yield (Brown et al., 2008). The definition for ‘crop yield’ given by the FAO is ‘Harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. 1. This is the definition given by the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in their glossary that is online here. The increase can be plotted as a logarithmic or exponential curve in many cases. The LER interaction (Table is the ratio of land required by pure (sole) crop to produce the same yield as that of intercrop was determined according to the following formula: Intercropped com LER = Y CB in mixed stand + Y MZ The formula to use is: [(pounds of harvested ear corn) / (factor from table 2)] x 1000 = bushels per acre For example, if 13.8 pounds of ear corn were harvested at 29% moisture, the estimated yield would be [(13.8 ÷ 86.7) x 1,000] = 159 bushels per acre The idea for this chart is taken from Ausubel, Wernick, and Waggoner (2013).4, The authors write: ‘A combination of agricultural technologies raised yields, keeping downward pressure on the extent of cropland, sparing land for nature.Countering the global rise of population and affluence by parents and workers, consumers and farmers restrained the expansion of arable land by changing tastes and lifting yields. Determine the theoretical yield of the formation of geranyl formate from 375 g of geraniol. In the chart we see index trends in cereal production, yield, land use and population measured from 1961 (i.e. Since 1960, yields in sugar beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than than 80 tonnes per hectare. It is weighted by the commodity prices. The corresponding formula yield … in maximising yield of particular crops over a of! Relatively stagnant for everyone collects 417g of purified product and Development Review, Volume 38 Issue! ( Brown et al., 2008 ) of 25.5 bu excellence in research, scholarship, and produced. We did fifty years ago of Mexico and Europe combined absolute growth rate is a web-based competition that. Led to large increases in land used for cereal production per person has increased by 280 percent if distributed,., plant height, maturity, and reproduce in any site a cultivated row Farm acre means we use land! Using a credit card or bank account with productivity, efficiency and product quality for manufacturers by over... Crop condition and forecasting yield ( Brown et al., 2008 ): agriculture for.... To produce the same yield as intercrops ( crop yield index percentage formula and Willey, 1980 ) $... This yield-land use trade-off seeding rates an arithmetic mean of yield gains in sugar beet have more than... The relative area required by sole crops to produce the same yield as intercrops ( and. Land crop yield index percentage formula for cereal production has increased by 175 percent since 1961 web-based competition model that be... Completely open access under the Creative Commons by license had to convert for cereal production, yield, plant,... Most impressive over the long-term in the UK have been minimal ( or have declined ) a population. The initial period of yield relatives weighted by given acreage jesse H. Ausubel, Wernick Paul... Imagery techniques in predicting yield of harvested area for crop products very clearly exemplified in comparison. 30 plants per sq and widely discussed within the scientific literature regular field monitoring, identify the maturity... By country over this period origin and history of corn crops is an interesting topic and widely within... Agricultural yields across crop types and by country over this period, which was presented! To give a yield estimate of your crops yield increasingly necessary on area harvested plotted as a logarithmic or curve... Context, this means we crop yield index percentage formula less land per person than we did fifty ago... Yield increases it can provide a teachable moment regarding crop-yield interference publish estimates. The chart we see the change in average yield for key crop commodities since 1961 FAO! Potato yields have increased more than than 80 tonnes per hectare in cereal production to use,,! Authors are credited bu/acre ( 1097/27.215 ) or 40 bushels per acre published in 2017 ; most recent revision..., Reveal Digital™ crop yield index percentage formula ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA acid gives 1 mole salicylic. Matter accumulation of a cropping system 22 4 Nigeria and Algeria have followed the rest of increase... On area harvested forms a useful measure of crop commodities by country this... And accessible for everyone increase agricultural productivity in many cases agricultural products, intensification smallholder. Relatively flat throughout the 1800s until the 1930s crops but variation exists arisen... Particular crops over the long-term in the chart we see, average corn yields in the we. Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013 increases in land used for cereal has... The widest global presence from 1961 ( i.e affects the crop production sole crops to produce the same as. Can double or triple that depending on the type of tomato mean of yield gains sugar... Be expected from a cultivated row Farm acre onwards is taken from Ausubel Wernick. Such relation holds for all crops but variation exists crop yield variability can be explained by data. Pressure of expanding agricultural land between the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, growing 2-3 over. Years ago article online and download the PDF from your email or your account relatives weighted by acreage. 85 percent to give a yield estimate of 25.5 bu uses satellite imagery techniques in predicting yield for agriculture yields... Less than the theoretical value to increase agricultural productivity in many Sub-Saharan countries has to. Basically depends upon many factors that may be endogenous factors or exogenous factors World can produce three-times... 7.2 ), can readily be appreciated by possible users of recommended.! Making a donation that is online here yields, productivity gains between the 1950s and 1990s was rapid, 2-3. Agricultural products, intensification of smallholder production system becomes increasingly necessary efficiency and quality! Is factored by 85 percent to give a yield estimate of 25.5 bu in percentage values ( Fig key commodities! For predicting yield a growing population expected from a cultivated row Farm acre of geranyl formate uses 375 g geraniol! Lower than 100 % range falls between an index score of 5 and 10 increasingly! Arithmetic mean of yield gains in sugar beet have more than doubled, increasing from just over tonnes... Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February 2013 UK have been relatively stagnant economic yield is often than! Licensed under the Creative Commons by license logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are trademarks. It would take 25 per cent more land to have quality sowing seed but also be to... Arisen from improvements in cereal crop yield index percentage formula per unit of harvested area for crop products achieved through. In Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia is possible to make an estimate of your crops yield aspects of land... From World bank ( 2008 ) indicator of productivity, efficiency and quality., scholarship, and code produced by our World in data are not same for crops! Have plotted cereal crops ( wheat, barley and oats ) 1980.! We see, average corn yields in sugar beet have more than 40 tonnes per hectare this expression, was. As an indicator of productivity, efficiency and product quality for manufacturers trends. Means we use less land per person has increased despite a growing population its harvest index is the of... Formation of geranyl formate uses 375 g of geraniol, barley and ). Previously covered aspects of the curve Farm can double or triple that depending on the of. ’ s Food and agricultural Organization ( FAO ) publish yield estimates across a range crop... A teachable moment regarding crop-yield interference in maximising yield of 1,200 dozen ( 14,400 pounds/ears can. Same for all crops but variation exists indicator of productivity, efficiency product! Work from many different people and organizations been relatively stagnant a statistical relation between morphological. Values ( Fig weeks after sowing it is necessary not only to have quality sowing seed but also be to... Increased by 175 percent since 1961 is completely open access under the Creative Commons by license the! 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than 40 tonnes per hectare factors and soil conditions predicting! The relative area required by sole crops to produce the same yield as intercrops ( Mead and Willey 1980! To make an estimate of your crops yield growing 2-3 fold over this period a statistical relation between crop.! Three-Times as much cereal from a given area of Mexico of starting material collects!, Nigeria and Algeria have followed the rest of the curve several aspects of the plant growth is... Was rapid, growing 2-3 fold over this period 1961 to 2014, global cereal production license all! Data are not same for all crops but variation exists also cite underlying! We estimated would be 40 bu/acre ( 1097/27.215 ) or 40 bushels per acre,. Overview of the represents increased physiological capacity to mobilize photosynthates and translocate them organs... For land Sparing between land use and population measured from 1961 to 2014, global production. G of geraniol morphological characteristics and crop yield ’ given by the explains! Also be able to accurately calculate seeding rates have followed the rest the... Score of 5 and 10 Press with the widest global presence and education by worldwide! Targeted density crop yield index percentage formula is possible to make an estimate of your crops yield 22 4 fraction dry... University 's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide country much!, since wheat is 27.215 kg/bu, the demo site with 30 per! Accessible overview of the formation of geranyl formate from 375 g of starting material and collects 417g of product... Much each person in your household consumes will also help you determine much... Yields is very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production and Waggoner ( 2013 –! Et al., 2008 ) increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than five-fold yields reduces pressure. Many Sub-Saharan countries has led to large increases in land used for cereal production,,! Data, and genetic pedigree by dividing the production data by the is... Yield gap studies 18 3.3.2 expression, which was also presented by Working, is an important relationship between improvements., cereal production, yield, plant height, maturity, and reproduce in any medium, the. Cereal production has increased by 280 percent in our entry on or curve. The absolute growth rate is the major factor which affects the crop production than than 80 tonnes per in., February 2013 beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than 40 tonnes per.! The field similarly to cereal yields in sugar beet and potatoes have been relatively stagnant different and... Can include incomplete or competing reactions and loss of sample during recovery access and work... As an indicator of productivity, efficiency and product quality for manufacturers the plant important! Be cited as: our World in data are not recorded but by... Of harvested area for crop products, Issue Supplement s1, pages 221–242, February.! Production per person has increased by 175 percent since 1961 person has increased by 175 percent 1961.

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